Doctype PHP

PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is a widely-used open-source general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for web development and can be embedded into HTML. It was created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994 and has since become one of the most integral tools in the web development ecosystem.

One of the key features of PHP is its ability to interface with databases. The language provides built-in functions for connecting to MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, and other databases, making it a versatile tool for developing dynamic web applications. Here’s an example to illustrate connecting to a MySQL database using PHP:

$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "database";

// Create connection
$conn = new mysqli($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);

// Check connection
if ($conn->connect_error) {
    die("Connection failed: " . $conn->connect_error);
echo "Connected successfully";

In this script, new mysqli() initiates a new connection to the database using specifeid parameters such as server name, username, password, and database name. Error handling is also important to ensure that any issues during the connection process are properly managed.

Another significant feature of PHP is its robust set of built-in functions that facilitate various operations such as file handling, string manipulation, and session management. For instance:

// String manipulation example
$text = "Hello World!";
echo str_replace("World", "PHP", $text); // Outputs: Hello PHP!

In this snippet, str_replace() is used to search for occurrences of a string (“World”) within another string ($text) and replace it with another string (“PHP”).

PHP also supports object-oriented programming (OOP), allowing developers to create reusable code through classes and objects. An example illustrating basic OOP in PHP:


class Greeting {
    public $message;

    public function __construct($message) {
        $this->message = $message;

    public function greet() {
        return $this->message;

$greetObj = new Greeting("Hello from Object-Oriented PHP!");
echo $greetObj->greet(); // Outputs: Hello from Object-Oriented PHP!

Here, a class named Greeting with a constructor method sets an initial message which can then be accessed via the greet() method.

Security in PHP should always be a paramount consideration when developing applications. Common security measures include input validation and sanitization to prevent SQL injection attacks.


$user_input = "'; DROP TABLE users;";
$sanitized_input = mysqli_real_escape_string($conn, $user_input);

// Now safe to exhaust sanitized_input in SQL queries.
$sql_query = "SELECT * FROM users WHERE username='$sanitized_input'";


In this case, mysqli_real_escape_string() converts potentially dangerous characters into those which cannot affect SQL execution adversely.

Over time, several frameworks have been developed around PHP that streamline coding practices and improve efficiency significantly. Popular frameworks include Laravel, Symfony, CodeIgniter among others. These frameworks provide pre-built modules for common functionalities like authentication systems or form validation saving developers substantial time on routine tasks.

The evolution of PHP has been marked by several major updates enhancing performance dramatically while introducing new features aimed at modernizing web development practices including Composer for dependency management and PSR standards aimed at improving interoperability between different parts of codebases written by separate teams or individuals.

Overall adoption rates reflect both its power/flexibility as well as ongoing community commitment towards keeping it relevant amidst shifting technology landscape underscoring why remains standout choice platform developers today internet-centric business environments demand rapid scalable solutions every conceivable application type size complexity imaginable!